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Surface turbulent momentum fluxes, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and moisture flux (or ocean evaporation) over the global ocean cannot be directly observed from either satellite or in situ sensors. These fluxes are  estimated using the following bulk flux parameterizations: τx  = ρ Cd |W – Ws| (u – us)              …

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The ocean interacts with the atmosphere via interfacial exchanges of momentum, heat (via radiation and convection), and fresh water (via evaporation and precipitation). These fluxes, or exchanges, constitute the ocean-surface energy and water budgets and define the ocean’s role in Earth’s climate and its variability on both short and long timescales. However, direct flux measurements…

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